by: Rabbi Jeremy Rosen - Last updated: 2007-03-23
Rabbi Jeremy Rosen
One of the most important religious obligations in Judaism is Gemilut Chessed, being kind to someone. Indeed according to the Mishna the World is based on three things.
Literally this means the commitment to Torah, God and Human beings. Torah (you might say Correct human behaviour if you want to be inclusive) Service of God ( lets call it for the sake of the Agnostics a spiritual, pan human dimension) and Gemilut Chessed ( Kindness to other human beings, which really speaks for itself ). These are the pillars of human life.
The term Gemilut Chesed is used rather than Tsedaka (Charity), because charity can only be exercised by those who have material things, giving to those without. Kindness on the other hand can come from a pauper to a magnate. The highest form of kindness , according to the Talmud, is dealing with the dead because they cannot return any favours. A sub category of Gemilut Chessed is Bikur Cholim, visiting the sick, which is not actually specified as a command in the ancient sources. Later the Midrash describes God as sick visiting Abraham after his circumcision and there is a fund of Midrashic sources supporting the idea and emphasizing its centrality. Theres a brief legal reference in the Talmud and even then it raises the possibility that sick visiting is subsumed under the wider category of kindness.
From my experience I have to say that simple as it sounds, being kind is one of the hardest challenges we humans face.
I have noticed that just as some people seem more naturally religious or pious than others, so some people seem more naturally good and kind hearted. It is expected that a rabbi and clergymen in general will be natural sick visitors and do gooders. In fact in orthodoxy the rabbinate traditionally was always a profession of scholars rather than pastors and perhaps thats why it fell more upon women to visit the sick and spread kindness around. The men were too busy grabbing for power or status or simply knew they werent very good at it and hoped their wives would cover for them and of course many great Rebbetzins did and do. Even today, Hassidic women predominate in the area of sick visiting and welfare and can be found around the world doing wonderful unpaid work wherever there is an opportunity to fulfil all or any aspects of the mitzvah. I am told by insiders that the very Orthodox women in Stamford Hill who deal with social issues are the very best in the land.
If being kind is such an important principle and law, then why is it in fact mentioned rather rarely and why is there such meagre discussion about its legal parameters in the Talmud? One reason is that it is so difficult to categorize because so much depends on intangible human interaction. You can say it is important to be kind but how do you know if you really are? Maybe your good intentions are having the opposite effect. How often have I seen well meaning sick visitors overstay their welcome or say the stupidest most inappropriate and sometimes hurtful things. And the same goes for visitors to the house of mourning.
Its all very well to take the advice of the Talmud and learn from Jobs comforters that one should not speak before the mourner opens up the conversation. But then what happens when the mourner doesnt feel like talking or when everyones sitting like a bunch dumb struck zombies looking mournful and sad and Waiting for Godot?? I guess thats why talking about practical tangible things like attending to the dead is simpler.
In Yeshiva we used to be told that Torah was the highest form of worship and greater than everything else, as it says VeTalmud Torah Kenneged Kulam. And that once we left Yeshiva it would all go downhill and our religious life would sink to that most despicable level of a simple Householder, the Baal HaBayit ( or Balaboss ). Whereas that may be true of the intensity of our study it was not necessarily true of our religious lives. Yes, by becoming a practising rabbi I was abandoning the Halls of Academe to teach Primary School. But outside and beyond, there was a whole raft of other activities that revolved around the idea of kindness that I now found myself suddenly and unpreparedly involved in. It was quite traumatic to have to visit congregants in hospitals. I had picked up a dread of hospitals during the last few months of my late fathers life. And I was fortunate in that I had never been hospitalized myself. The scenes, the smells the implications terrified me. And then what did I say? What did I do? No one had told me or taught me. I read psychology and pastoral manuals and I asked and I researched, but I was till tongue tied and awkward and burdened with a profound sense of uselessness, even anger with God for doing what He was doing to other humans and, it seemed, expecting me to pick up the pieces.
Yet for all of this angst I kept on hearing that I was helpful and kind and people appreciated my coming and yet I didnt know why or how. And here I am forty years on and sadly I have this past month had to visit and be with some close friends whom the Almighty has decided He has other plans for and I feel as helpless and useless and angry and emotionally raw and weepy as I ever did and I still dont know what to say or what to do.
In a way its like love, Love Your Neighbour after all. The Hebrew word for love as based on the word to bring or give. Its what you bring or give to a relationship that stimulates and increase love. It is your being, who you are and as you are, for better or for worse. And so by being with someone, that simple act of being, the effort to show you care, that is a kindness. You dont have to say the right things. You certainly should not say the wrong things, silly parables or dubious theological explanations. As God says of the Jewish people in Psalms 91 I am with him (you) in your pain. So it must be with us, to be and to love and to find ways of showing it. That, to my mind is above all Kenneged Kulam.
This is dedicated to my friend Howard Ronson who died this Wednesday.
Visit Rabbi Jeremy Rosen on the web: www.JeremyRosen.com